Interdisciplinary Program in Sweden Related to Transgender Voice Gender incongruence occurs when there is a discrepancy between gender identity and a person's sex assigned at birth and their bodily appearance. Sweden was the first country in the world to pass a law regulating a person's legal right to change gender. There are six psychiatric gender teams in Sweden ... Article
Article  |   July 01, 2015
Interdisciplinary Program in Sweden Related to Transgender Voice
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Maria Södersten
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Karolinska Institutet
    Department of Speech and Language Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
  • Ulrika Nygren
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Karolinska Institutet
    Department of Speech and Language Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
  • Stellan Hertegård
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Division of Ear, Nose and Throat Disease, Karolinska Institutet
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
  • Cecilia Dhejne
    Center for Psychiatric Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet
    Center for Andrology and Sexual Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
  • Disclosures: Financial: Maria Södersten, Ulrika Nygren, Stellan Hertegård, and Cecilia Dhejne have no financial interests to disclose.
    Disclosures: Financial: Maria Södersten, Ulrika Nygren, Stellan Hertegård, and Cecilia Dhejne have no financial interests to disclose.×
  • Nonfinancial: This paper is based on an oral presentation at the 23rd Biennial Symposium of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) in Bangkok, February, 2014.
    Nonfinancial: This paper is based on an oral presentation at the 23rd Biennial Symposium of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) in Bangkok, February, 2014.×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Voice Disorders / Special Populations / Transgender / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Articles
Article   |   July 01, 2015
Interdisciplinary Program in Sweden Related to Transgender Voice
SIG 3 Perspectives on Voice and Voice Disorders, July 2015, Vol. 25, 87-97. doi:10.1044/vvd25.2.87
History: Received February 2, 2015 , Revised April 3, 2015 , Accepted April 6, 2015
SIG 3 Perspectives on Voice and Voice Disorders, July 2015, Vol. 25, 87-97. doi:10.1044/vvd25.2.87
History: Received February 2, 2015; Revised April 3, 2015; Accepted April 6, 2015

Gender incongruence occurs when there is a discrepancy between gender identity and a person's sex assigned at birth and their bodily appearance. Sweden was the first country in the world to pass a law regulating a person's legal right to change gender. There are six psychiatric gender teams in Sweden responsible for diagnostic assessments and coordination of gender confirming medical interventions. Extended gender teams include endocrinologists, speech-language pathologists, phoniatricians, gynecologists, dermatologists, and surgeons. All male-to-female (MtF) and female-to-male (FtM) transgender individuals are referred for voice assessment when a gender dysphoria diagnosis has been confirmed. Voice assessment includes questionnaires and voice recordings in habitual and loud voice and voice range profiles. Voice and communication therapy is provided for both MtF and FtM individuals. Pitch-raising surgery can be considered and pre- and post-operative voice therapy is required for optimal results. The Swedish Association for Transsexual Health was launched 2004. The national guidelines were recently updated to make those more congruent with WPATH's Standards of Care version 7. A national quality registry for Gender Dysphoria has been accepted for financial support. The registry will in the future be a unique source to provide data concerning patient satisfaction, safety, and life quality.

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