Pediatric Upper Airway Pathologies Chronic upper airway obstruction refers to conditions (infectious, inflammatory, tumor, congenital, acquired) that impede the airflow anywhere along the laryngo-tracheal complex (supraglottis, glottis, subglottis and trachea; Stern & Cotton, 1999). Historically, airway obstruction was related to infectious agents such as diphtheria, tuberculosis, syphilis, croup, and typhoid. Children requiring an ... Article
Article  |   November 01, 2006
Pediatric Upper Airway Pathologies
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Karen B. Zur
    Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Philadelphia, PA
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Voice Disorders / Swallowing, Dysphagia & Feeding Disorders / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Articles
Article   |   November 01, 2006
Pediatric Upper Airway Pathologies
SIG 3 Perspectives on Voice and Voice Disorders, November 2006, Vol. 16, 11-15. doi:10.1044/vvd16.3.11
SIG 3 Perspectives on Voice and Voice Disorders, November 2006, Vol. 16, 11-15. doi:10.1044/vvd16.3.11
Chronic upper airway obstruction refers to conditions (infectious, inflammatory, tumor, congenital, acquired) that impede the airflow anywhere along the laryngo-tracheal complex (supraglottis, glottis, subglottis and trachea; Stern & Cotton, 1999). Historically, airway obstruction was related to infectious agents such as diphtheria, tuberculosis, syphilis, croup, and typhoid. Children requiring an artificial airway in such conditions underwent high tracheotomies, leading to the development of subglottic stenosis. With the introduction of toxoids and vaccinations, the rates of inflammatory and infectious conditions requiring an artificial airway have significantly decreased (Cotton, 1991). In the mid-to-late 1960s, prolonged intubation and mechanical ventilation were introduced to manage pulmonary and airway compromise (Henderson-Smart, Wilkinson, & Raynes-Greenow, 2002). As a result of increased survival rates of premature infants, with the advent of prolonged intubation for management of hyaline membrane disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and other neonatal pulmonary conditions, the rates of sub-glottic stenosis in this population have increased (Myer & Hartley, 2000).
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